Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Portuguese- Matthew Centner

Matthew Centner

Basic information

208,525,450 speakers
13 countries: Portugal Brazil, and Mozambique
Romantic language – Derived of Vulgar, or slang Latin


Roman – 400AD
Germanic - 400-800AD
Moorish (Arabic speakers) – 711AD
Galatian Portuguese -1100AD
Northern Christian Romantic Language speakers (French) – 1200AD
Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, Mozambique, Macau, India, Brazil


Northern Portuguese, Central Portuguese, Southern Portuguese
Northern- Galatian Portuguese
Central- Spoken in Central Portugal
Southern- Lisbon, Standard dialect
Insular Portuguese Northeastern, Northern, Central, Rio, Southern, and Sao Paulo
Angolan- Angola
Macanese- Macau

Phonology and Grammar

The Portuguese language consists of 9 simple vowels, 5 nasalized vowels, 2 semivowels, 25 simple diphthongs, 4 nasalized diphthongs, 5 simple triphthongs, 4 nasalized triphthongs, 21 consonants.
Future subjunctive and future perfect subjunctive
 partir ‘to depart’ may be conjugated partir|eu ‘for me to depart’ or ‘that I may depart’
Portuguese Slave trade

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to become involved in the Atlantic slave trade
Didn’t depend on anything, religion geography or even political loyalties
Enslaved everyone
Turks – those of the Ottoman empire in today’s Turkey
Moors – North African Islamic people
Berbers – pre-arab inhabitants of north Africa
Moriscos – individuals who converted to Christianity from Islam, often by force

Expanding south

Caravel- Ship that enabled longer distance travel
1430- Past Morocco
1445- A trading post was established on the small island of Arguim off the coast of present-day Mauritania
1482- The town of Elmina in present-day Ghana
1490- Colonization of São Tomé
These locations didn’t just trade slaves,  African gold, silk, ivory and other goods also.

Abolishing the Slave trade 
in India 1842-60
Estado de India

Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1842
Anglo-Portuguese Anti-Slavery Treaty of 1818 and the Portuguese Royal Edict of 1836
Pressure by the British
Caused stress and resentment
This stress lead Portuguese government to falsify information
People hid their slaves
Officially abolished in 1843


Ager, S. (2017). Portuguese (Português). Retrieved from http://www.omniglot.com/writing/portuguese.htm
Fenning, C. & Simons, G. (eds.). 2016. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Nineteenth edition. Dallas, Texas; SIL International. Online version:   https://www.ethnologue.com/language/por
Goodin-Mayeda, E. (2016). Nasals and nasalization in Spanish and Portuguese: Perception, phonetics and phonology (Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone linguistics (IHLL), volume 9;   Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone linguistics, v. 9). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Langer, W. & Sterns, P. (2008). Encyclopedia of World History. (Vol. 2). New York City: Infobase Publishing.
Langer, W. & Sterns, P. (2008). Encyclopedia of World History. (Vol. 3). New York City: Infobase Publishing.
Newson, L. A. (2013). The slave-trading accounts of manoel batista peres, 1613-1619: Double-entry bookkeeping in cloth money. Accounting History, 18(3), 343-365.  doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1032373213485933
Posner, R. & Sala, M. (2015). Portuguese Language. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Portuguese-language
Timothy Walker Assistant Professor (2004) Abolishing the slave trade in Portuguese India: documentary evidence of popular and official resistance to crown   policy, 1842–60, Slavery & Abolition, 25:2, 63-79
Wise, C., & Wheat, D. (2016). African Laborers for a New Empire: Iberia, Slavery, and the Atlantic World. Retrieved April 27, 2017, from   http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/african_laborers_for_a_new_emp

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